• Congenital scoliosis: Results from congenitally anomalous vertebral development (i.e., a hemivertebra).

  • Neuromuscular scoliosis: Results form an abnormality of the central nervous system or of the muscles and nerves (i.e., cerebral palsy, tetehered cors syndrome, muscle diseses)

  • Traumatic scoliosis: Results from prior trauma to the spine compromising balance.

  • Degenerative scoliosis: Results form progessive degenerative changes of the spine.

  • Idiopathic scoliosis: A structural lateral deviation of the spine for which no known cause is determined. Based on the age of the patient at presentation, idiopathic scoliosis is subclassified to:

  • Infantile scoliosis: Presentation age is between 0 to 3.
  • Juvenile scoliosis: Ages 4 to 9.
  • Adolescent scoliosis: Ages 10 or more (puberty to maturity).

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